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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: symptoms, causes, and treatment

What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD, is a mental health problem that results in inattention and reckless behaviors.

People with ADHD are often restless and constantly hyperactive. They often find it difficult to focus on a single task or sit in one place for a long period of time. ADHD is often discovered in early childhood and persists into adulthood. It leads to low self-esteem and difficulties at the professional and personal levels. Children with ADHD often have difficulty following school curriculum and following rules.

Although ADHD is often diagnosed during childhood, it can persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is also one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health conditions in children. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms and types of ADHD well so that you can manage it better.

What are the symptoms of ADHD?

Signs and symptoms of ADHD that are commonly seen in people or children with this disorder include:

  • Hyperactivity;
  • attention difficulties;
  • Rush.
  • Inability to notice details.
  • Difficulty following instructions.
  • You get distracted easily;
  • Cannot handle tasks that require sustained mental effort;
  • Fidgeting or fidgeting while sitting;
  • move when you are expected to sit still;
  • Getting emotional in inappropriate situations;
  • Constantly interrupting conversations;
  • You find it difficult to wait your turn.

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder They often find it difficult to adapt to school because they are unable to sit for long periods of time, complete homework, listen attentively to the teacher, etc.

Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder They also find it difficult to follow instructions, perform sequential procedures, remain seated in meetings, etc. This can be very destructive to their career. If you're not sure whether you or someone you know has ADHD, check to see if the symptoms above are combined with other problems such as depression, anxiety, and other learning difficulties. It is a good idea to see a psychiatrist or psychologist as soon as possible to make sure your symptoms match the diagnosis.

What are the risk factors?

Before determining the causes of ADHD, you need to know the different risk factors. The most common risk factors for a mental health problem include:

  • Boys are more at risk than girls.
  • Family history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
  • Smoking during pregnancy;
  • Exposure to environmental toxins.
  • Free delivery service;
  • high pressure ;
  • Family history of conversion disorder.
  • Drug use during pregnancy.
  • Alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
  • Low birth weight;
  • brain damage;
  • He was born with a severe heart disease.
  • Some genetic diseases such as Turner syndrome.

In addition to the risk factors listed above, exposing a young child to more than two hours of screen time per day can also increase the risk of developing ADHD.

Associated diseases

Although ADHD does not lead to other developmental or psychological problems, children with ADHD are more likely to suffer from other disorders such as:

  • Defiant stubborn disorder This disorder is defined as a pattern of defiant, negative, and hostile behavior toward any authority figure.
  • Driving disorder : It is defined by antisocial behavior, such as fighting, stealing, injuring people or animals, and destroying property.
  • Disordered mood regulation disorder : This disorder is defined by irritability and difficulty managing frustration.
  • Learning disorders Learning disabilities include difficulties in reading, writing, communication, and understanding.
  • Anxiety disorders : This disorder is defined by severe anxiety and nervousness, and also includes obsessive-compulsive disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  • Mood disorders Mood disorders include depression, bipolar disorder, and manic behavior.
  • Autism spectrum disorder : This disorder results from a problem in brain development that affects how a person perceives others and communicates socially.

How is ADHD diagnosed?

There is no specific way to diagnose ADHD. Doctors use standard criteria to help diagnose ADHD. A child suspected of having ADHD is often referred to a psychiatrist, pediatrician, learning disabilities specialist, or occupational therapist with expertise in ADHD for a comprehensive evaluation. This evaluation includes:

  • Clinical examination : Allows us to rule out other possible causes of symptoms.
  • Interview with the child : The specialist interviews the child to evaluate the symptoms himself.
  • A series of interviews : The specialist interviews people involved in the child's development, including parents, teachers, and others.

Children and teens are diagnosed with ADHD if they show six or more signs of inattention, or six or more signs of impulsivity and hyperactivity. Other criteria that specialists look for include:

  • Symptoms appear continuously for six months or more;
  • Symptoms appear before age 12;
  • Symptoms appear in at least two different contexts.

To be diagnosed with ADHD in adults, a patient must take an ADHD test and have at least 5 symptoms of inattention, or at least 5 symptoms of impulsivity and hyperactivity. Adults are also asked about their current symptoms and those they experienced as children. For an adult to be diagnosed with ADHD, their symptoms must have affected various aspects of their life, such as difficulty making friends, driving safely, performing less well at work, maintaining relationships, etc.

How is ADHD treated?

There is currently no specific treatment for ADHD. It can only be managed by reducing symptoms so that the patient can improve his behavior. ADHD is often treated with a combination of medications (stimulants or antidepressants, for example), educational or learning measures.

How can attention deficit hyperactivity disorder be prevented?

You can reduce the chances of your child developing ADHD by adopting a healthy lifestyle during pregnancy. This involves eating healthy foods and staying away from tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Once the baby is born and starts eating a regular diet, he should be given enough protein-rich foods. It is also important to make sure that he does not spend too much time in front of the screen during his childhood. Ultimately, it's a good idea to reduce risk factors for ADHD as much as possible.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: symptoms, causes, and treatment

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