Gonorrhea is a Sexually transmitted infections (STI) is caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonorrhea. This bacteria infects the mucous membranes of the reproductive system, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and the urethra in women and men. N. gonorrhoeae can also infect the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, eyes, and rectum.
Gonorrhea is a very common infectious disease. There are an estimated millions of new gonococcal infections worldwide, more than half of which affect young people aged 15 to 24 years. Gonorrhea is the second most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection. However, many infections are asymptomatic, so reported cases represent only a small fraction of the true number of infections.
How is gonorrhea transmitted?
Gonorrhea is transmitted through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation is not necessary to transmit or acquire gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can also be transmitted from mother to child during birth.
People who have had gonorrhea and receive treatment can become infected again if they become infected with it Sex With someone who has gonorrhea. Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea.
Symptoms of gonorrhea
Gonorrhea, also known as “gonorrhea,” is a disease that can manifest in different ways depending on the individual and the severity of the infection. How do you know if you are infected with this bacteria?
Symptoms in men
In men, gonorrhea symptoms may appear two to seven days after infection. Sometimes it can take up to a month for symptoms to appear. The most common symptoms in men include: Pain or burning when urinatingand A Discharge from the penis Which can be white, yellow or green. In some cases, men may also experience pain or swelling in one or both testicles, although this is less common.
It is important to note that some men infected with gonorrhea do not have any symptoms. In fact, about 10% of men infected with gonorrhea have no symptoms. This means that they do not have any symptoms, but they can still transmit the infection to their sexual partners.
In men, if gonorrhea is left untreated, it can cause inflammation of the tubes leading to the testicles, causing infertility.
Symptoms in women
In women, gonorrhea symptoms are often more subtle and can be confused with a regular urinary or vaginal infection. Symptoms may include pain or burning when urinating, Vaginal discharge Which may be yellow or bloody and may be accompanied by a strong odor, Bleeding between menstrual periodsthe follower Abdominal or pelvic pain And the Painful intercourse.
As with men, many women with gonorrhea have no symptoms. It is estimated that up to 50% of women infected with gonorrhea have no symptoms. This can make the condition difficult to diagnose and treat, and increases the risk of serious complications if the infection is left untreated.
If gonorrhea is left untreated in women, it can lead to serious, long-term complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can cause infertility, chronic abdominal pain, and scarring of the uterus or fallopian tubes.
Symptoms of rectal and pharyngeal infections
In both sexes, gonorrhea can also affect the rectum and throat(1) (Those with sensitive souls, do not click on this link), usually after anal or oral sex. Symptoms of rectal gonorrhea infection may include: Anal itchingthe follower losses Or some bleedingand sometimes Pain during bowel movements. It can cause pharyngeal gonorrhea infection sore throatbut it is often asymptomatic.
It's important to remember that even if you don't have symptoms, you can still transmit gonorrhea to your sexual partners. That's why getting tested for STDs regularly is so important, especially if you have new sexual partners or have had unprotected sex.
Diagnosis of gonorrhea
Gonorrhea can be diagnosed by a urine test, a urethral swab (in men) or an endocervical or vaginal swab (in women) using a technique called nucleic acid amplification (NAAT). It can also be diagnosed using gonorrhea culture, which requires sampling of an endocervical or urethral swab. Diagnostic tests for gonorrhea (as well as chlamydia) have been validated for clinical use.
Who should get tested?
Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea. Anyone who experiences genital symptoms such as discharge, burning when urinating, unusual sores or rashes should stop having sex and consult a doctor immediately.
In addition, anyone who has an oral, anal or vaginal sexual partner who has recently been diagnosed with an STD should see their GP.
Annual gonorrhea screening is recommended for all sexually active people under the age of 25, as well as older adults with risk factors such as new or multiple sexual partners.
Treatment of gonorrhea
The good news is that gonorrhea can be treated with treatment, such as: Ceftriaxone. Although the medication stops the infection, it will not reverse the permanent damage caused by the disease. Antimicrobial resistance in gonorrhea is a growing concern, and successful treatment of gonorrhea is becoming increasingly difficult(2).
Testing treatment (follow-up to make sure the infection has been treated successfully) is not always necessary for genital and rectal infections; However, if a person's symptoms persist for more than a few days after receiving treatment, they should return to the doctor to be re-examined. Re-examination is also recommended after 7 to 14 days of treatment for people who have been treated for pharyngeal gonorrhea (throat infection).
Because reinfection is common(3)Men and women infected with gonorrhea should be retested a few months after the initial infection has been treated, regardless of whether they think their sexual partners have been successfully treated.
Gonorrhea prevention is essential to control the spread of this disease. Proper use of latex condoms can reduce the risk of transmission of gonorrhea. The safest way to avoid transmitting gonorrhea or other sexually transmitted diseases is to be in a long-term monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner.
If someone is diagnosed with and treated for gonorrhea, it is recommended to inform any partners who have recently had sex (anal, vaginal, or oral) so they can seek medical care and get treatment. This will reduce the risk of sexual partners developing serious complications from gonorrhea and will also reduce a person's risk of becoming infected again.
The last word
Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is essential to get tested regularly, use a condom during sex, and seek immediate treatment if a positive diagnosis occurs. Prevention is key to controlling the spread of this disease. Ultimately, sexual health is the responsibility of each individual. By being informed and proactive, you can significantly reduce your risk of contracting or transmitting gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea: symptoms, treatment and prevention